This means its programs take up more CPU time than a compiled language — a problem that becomes less important as the speed of processors increases. We use our own and third-party cookies to provide you with a great online experience. In Perl each element of an array can be a reference to another array, but syntactically they would look like a two-dimensional array. However, it is not restricted to working on JSON input. The values are scalar values. (As far as I know, it is the first language to have referred to the data structure thus, rather than "hash table" or something similar. Then it uses that local variable in the. htm Lecture By: Ms. The engine guarantees that those will be serialized in the same context as the other objects, and therefore that shared objects will stay shared. After deleting all of the equal values, the only things left in each list are the unique values. Version 2: This version uses a single char array, created before the loop. Using php you can decode the Json file using the function json_decode, than you have to send the decoded values to MySQL using. $#array is the subscript of the last element of the array (which is one less than the length of the array, since arrays start from zero). It's like JSON. org (see website for access through a browser). Een gesorteerde lijst met waarden. ECMAScript as defined here is not intended to be computationally self-sufficient; indeed, there are no provisions in this specification for input of external data or output of computed results. Unary function object class that defines the default hash function used by the standard library. XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a popular and widely-implemented standard: you can use XML to create documents and data records that are fully portable and platform-independent. The top level of this document is a hash, the first two keys hold strings and the last two keys hold arrays of strings. This must be an object of a basic_regex type (such as regex), generally constructed from a string with a special syntax that describes what constitutes a match (see ECMAScript syntax). 1 Hash and Array Parameters. To: [email protected] The hash variable name begins with the % symbol. In Perl, there are many ways to make HTTP requests by using existing Perl modules. creating array of hash Perl Forums on Bytes. Whenever possible it is recommended to specify these settings in the config section of composer. They can hold only scalar values (meaning a string, number, or a reference). I felt if curl provide any simple solution with out writing a script for making this happen. Perl Viewer, Formatter, Editor. Preview Your Fonts Your headline is in Tahoma This is a sub heading in Tahoma. In this little tute, I'll cover another of the widely used more advanced Perl data constructs, in this case a "hash of hashes". HTML CSS JavaScript XHTML SSI Perl CGI PHP tutorials. values), each to return as list of key and values (same as hash. The following example defines a sample perl array of arrays. stands for YAML ain't markup language and is a superset of JSON. undef) become JSON null values. Associative arrays are sometimes called maps, dictionaries (Python, Smalltalk), or hashes (Perl). json to something else. You can now clearly identify the different constructs of your JSON (objects, arrays and members). XML to JSON and JSON to XML converter online. {starts both hash references and blocks, so map { could be either the start of map BLOCK LIST or map EXPR, LIST. Perl array examples FAQ: Can you share some Perl array examples (Perl array programming examples)? After doing a lot of work with Perl arrays recently, I thought I'd post a little collection of Perl array examples out here today. Online JSON Formatter and Online JSON Validator also provides tools to convert JSON to XML, JSON to CSV, JSON Editor, JSONLint and JSON Checker. In this tutorial, I'll show you how to parse JSON using Perl. 1 for the PL/Python naming convention). While Perl uses arrays, hashes (objects) & scalars (single elements) just like most other languages, Perl requires each variable to also define the type of variable it is when it is called. Below is my code but I got errors. Two JSON arrays are equal if they have the same length and values in corresponding positions in the arrays are equal. It involves two Perl functions, keys and sort, along with the good old foreach statement. This chapter covers how to encode and decode JSON objects using Perl programming language. A module PrintKeyItems get the hash, the key to find, and the second array with values, and apply indexes from hash to array. Formats a JSON string or file with the chosen indentation level, creating a tree object with color highlights. Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML. Ray hat gesagt… Hallo Herr Plantiko, ich habe mit der XSLT Transformation, speziell beim serialisieren von Standard Tabellen ein Problem festgestellt. You retrieve or create a new entry in a Hash by referring to its key. Many of Yahoo!'s Web Service APIs provide the option of JSON as an output format in addition to XML. A Perl hash is like a Map in the Java programming language, or an array in PHP. For some reason I used to use this approach, but as you can see, the first two approaches to determining the Perl array length are much easier to use and remember. This gives us robustness and scalability - your Catalyst-based app also inherits those. I help by introducing Test Automation, Continuous Integration, Continuous Deployment, Containerization (Vagrant, Docker), Cloudification (GCP, AWS), and other Agile and DevOps practices. JSON è un formato di testo completamente indipendente dal linguaggio di programmazione, ma utilizza convenzioni conosciute dai programmatori di linguaggi della famiglia del C, come C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python, e molti altri. Security is a major plus point with JSON too. But in Perl, there is an alternative to provide empty values to Hashes. JSON Schema is hypermedia ready, and ideal for annotating your existing JSON-based HTTP API. It is preferred over simpler array because instead of printing value based on index number, you can print by using key. A Hash is a collection of key-value pairs. Array#length. When we ask for a single element from an array via a look-up, we precede the name of the array with a $ sign. The syntax for arrays and hashtables is a bit different in JSON. Tips & Tricks. If you flatten multiple hashes or arrays into a list, there's no way to get them back apart again, unless you have some extra info, because you have no way of knowing where one stops and the next one starts. At the moment it can detect and parse JSON and output of find command. JSON Formatter & Editor Online is a free awesome web-based tool to view, edit JSON document. JSON-delta is a multi-language software suite for computing deltas between JSON-serialized data structures, and applying those deltas as patches. It works by transforming the key using a hash function into a hash, a number that is used as an index in an array to locate the desired location ("bucket") where the values should be. In den meisten Sprachen gibt es Parser, die den JSON String in eine entsprechende Variable verwandeln. Quickly test and debug your regex. You can then use a function called decode_json() which decodes a JSON string, and returns the reference to a corresponding Perl data structure. json中国是国内最专业的json研究机构, 致力于在国内介绍、推广、使用json, 同时也提供了各个json工具的汉化支持工作. It includes many improvements, including adding Windows Forms and WPF, adding new JSON APIs, support for ARM64 and improving performance across the board. Using our original array with 4 values, $#simpsons will return the value 3, as it checks the index of the last value in the array, and since the first value's index is 0, the number you get will be one less than the number of items in the array. Perl - Arrays - An array is a variable that stores an ordered list of scalar values. In fact, it will happily work over any data structure made up of arrays and hashes. 12, keys also returns the index values of an array. Updated: May 23rd, 2009. NET program that splits file path Module Module1 Sub Main() ' The file system path we need to split. PHP Viewer, Formatter, Editor. You can then use a function called decode_json() which decodes a JSON string, and returns the reference to a corresponding Perl data structure. JSON采用完全独立于语言的文本格式,但是也使用了类似于C语言家族的习惯(包括C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python等)。 这些特性使JSON成为理想的数据交换语言。. Just because Perl is. ----- JSON - JavaScript Object Notation This is a very well defined data format, that is easy for both humans and machines to generate, and allows simple automatic reformating. Perl Tutorial Perl - Introduction Perl - First Script Perl - Syntax Perl - Variables Perl - Strings Perl - Numbers Perl - Operators Perl - Arrays Perl - If Perl - For Perl - While Perl - Hashes File Management Perl - File Handles Perl - Open Perl - Create Perl - Input Perl - Copy Perl - Delete Command Promt Perl - Programming Perl - User Input. I have written two Perl subroutines to flatten and unflatten a complex hash or array key. Python's efficient key/value hash table structure is called a "dict". No type conversion of the operand is performed. hash{ab} = cd ef - ab is a string in the array row hash{mn} = de fg - mn is a string in the array row Can someone comment?. FWIW, in Rakudo Perl 6, hashes do not get flattened in an array when using. It is preferred over simpler array because instead of printing value based on index number, you can print by using key. The hash is substantially smaller than the text itself, and is generated by a formula in such a way that it is extremely unlikely that some other text will produce the same hash value. JavaScript Examples This page contains JavaScript examples - examples of JavaScript tricks that you can use for your own website. This means that different runs of Perl will have different Data::Dumper outputs if the data contains hashes. Preliminaries. The basic idea behind a hash table is that accessing an element of an array via its index is a simple, constant-time operation. Adds the @new elements to the hash with the same semantics as hash assignment, but with three exceptions: The hash isn't emptied first, i. JSON training has superiority in every possible way in terms of flexibility, ease of use and degree of compactness. , in array columns. But simple combinations of arrays and hashes may be all you ever need, so they're what we'll talk about in this chapter. Perl has a host of special variables that get filled after every m// or s/// regex match. Basically length method used on arrays in ruby returns number of elements in the array for which method is invoked. So for example, a single string or number would be a valid JSON object. Press button, get base64. Producing hash values for accessing data or for security. To fix this you can test the length of the hash and append equal signs "=" until it is the length is a multiple of 4. The home of JSON Schema. By default, SizeType is typedef of unsigned. If the arrays are not equal, their order is determined by the elements in the first position where there is a difference. Parse JSON using Python. parse() Jump to: The JSON. Creating an associative array in perl (hashes) These are actually called hashes ("%") in perldocs, but for me its easier to call them associative arrays because are really similar to this. json, so you should experience much less of a headache No more deleting that package-lock just to run `npm install` and regenerate it. Or follow us to learn about our latest tools:. Here's a simple example that demonstrates the Perl "exists" hash function. 5, and provides Perl-style regular expression patterns. Nov 28, 2002 at 8:17 am: Which is the quickest way of converting an array to hash keys. Parse JSON using Python. The type of hash function to use. The following example defines a sample perl array of arrays. You can create arrays of hashes, hashes of arrays, and any other sort of complicated data structure you can dream up. This is my take on the Array of Hashes exercise from the book of Intermediate Perl, also known as the Alpaca book. Returns the Array value represented by given Array type, else raise a TypeCastError exception. Hashes, represented by curly brackets, store information in key/value pairs. Perl Array of Arrays. Data types specify the type of data that a valid Perl variable can hold. It is common, however, to use a reference to an array as a hash value since references are scalars, and this is what encode_json expects. The JSON standard does not prohibit usage that is prohibited with a PSCustomObject. [This topic is a companion to : repctl-gettablesstatus ] Perl is distributed with a JSON ( JavaScript Object Notation) module which notably has Intro to manipulating JSON file from perl scripts. Assigning to $#array changes the length of the array @array, hence you can destroy (or clear) all values of the array between the last element and the newly assigned position. The json_encode function will convert a PHP array (or, since PHP 5. The Jackson Object mapper can parse JSON into objects of classes developed by you, or into objects of the built-in JSON tree model explained later in this tutorial. Like JSON it allows the transmission of data objects that contain name–value pairs, but in a more concise manner. ArduinoJson is a JSON library for Arduino, IoT, and any embedded C++ project. join('[')+Array(3000). JSON arrays are read into standard Perl arrays. [This topic is a companion to : repctl-gettablesstatus ] Perl is distributed with a JSON ( JavaScript Object Notation) module which notably has Intro to manipulating JSON file from perl scripts. Also Java incorporates associative arrays in the form of instances of the java. The big advantage of a hash is faster look-up compared to arrays. Learn Perl 5 By Doing It A practical introduction to the Perl language. Using the JsonGroovyBuilder. When we ask for a single element from an array via a look-up, we precede the name of the array with a $ sign. Preview Your Fonts Your headline is in Georgia This is a sub heading in Georgia. 0 64-bit === + +MediaWiki now checks for a condition where PHP 5. Perl Viewer, Formatter, Editor. Using functions defined here provides a little bit more compile-time safety to make sure the function exists. class Hash A Hash is a dictionary-like collection of unique keys and their values. The Marvel developer portal gives Marvel fans, partners and other technologists access to an array of powerful APIs, documentation, and other tools to interact with Marvel's systems. 它基于JavaScript Programming Language, Standard ECMA-262 3rd Edition - December 1999的一个子集。JSON采用完全独立于语言的文本格式,但是也使用了类似于C语言家族的习惯(包括C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python等)。这些特性使JSON成为理想的数据交换语言。 JSON建构于两种结构:. Any array using a key, value format such as fruit_colors[‘apple’] = ‘red’. Perl Array of Arrays. As an exercise, you could use Devel::Size to measure the memory usage of the Perl variables and to measure the memory usage of the Perl script. (string * int) assoc maps to the OCaml type (string * int) list, but using assoc specifies that it derives from a JSON object rather than a JSON array of arrays of two elements. Existing developers / system administrators. Hash variables are preceded by a percent (%) sign. JSON, short for JavaScript Object Notation, is a lightweight computer data interchange format. JSON ("JavaScript Object Notation") definiert ein schlankes Datenformat, in dem Informationen wie Objekte, Arrays und sonstige Variablen in lesbarer Form gespeichert werden können. uuid5 (namespace, name) ¶ Generate a UUID based on the SHA-1 hash of a namespace identifier (which is a UUID) and a name (which is a string). At the same time, Perl and Python wizards will find many of their favorite features: full regular expression support, tight integration with the underlying operating system, convenient shortcuts, and dynamic evaluation. I have currently 50K JSON events that i need to post to a service. When you create an array of hashes, what is really happening is that you are creating an array of hash references. In contrast to the widespread use of the Perl language, Perl's GUI toolset, Perl/Tk, is much less popular. undef) become JSON null values. Perl extension for parsing configuration files written in a subset of Perl and (limited) undumping of data structures (via PPI, not eval) Hauke D ([email protected] Perl Forums on Bytes. The Perl for MS Windows, free of charge! Perl is a programming language suitable for writing simple scripts as well as complex applications - see https://www. If the key exists in the second array, and not the first, it will be created in the first array. JSON training has superiority in every possible way in terms of flexibility, ease of use and degree of compactness. Undefined Perl values (e. The new big hash holds references the hashes in the original array and the actual data of these small hashes is not copied. Perl Hash Howto. I was happily using and learning Ruby for months before I ever ran into a situation where serializing a few objects really would have made my life easier. This is easiest to demonstrate by example. As the name implies, it’s based on the way you define objects (which are very similar to what you’d call associative arrays or hashes in other languages), and arrays. The CreateTable operation adds a new table to your account. Working with hashes. How to use this API documentation. JSON-able means only strings, booleans, nulls (Perl undef), numbers, array-refs, hash-refs, with no circular references. As an exercise, you could use Devel::Size to measure the memory usage of the Perl variables and to measure the memory usage of the Perl script. Starting from Perl 5. Like JSON, BSON sup­ports the em­bed­ding of doc­u­ments and ar­rays with­in oth­er doc­u­ments and ar­rays. PHP Viewer, Formatter, Editor. Result: By caching a char array (or string array), we can improve split call performance by a small amount. Convert array of hashes to json. unpackb (b ' \x93\x01\x02\x03 ', use_list = False, raw = False) (1, 2, 3) You should always specify the use_list keyword argument for backward compatibility. Perl's Special Variables. If the arrays are not equal, their order is determined by the elements in the first position where there is a difference. Press button, get base64. (W misc) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///) operators work on scalar values. Method 1: Uses a foreach-loop that directly accesses the instance field _values. TODO ? patches/patch-cross Index: Makefile ===== RCS file: /cvsroot/pkgsrc/lang/perl5/Makefile,v retrieving revision 1. - challenge. 15 == === Changes since 1. The variable values may be of virtually any Perl type, including simple scalars, references to lists, hash arrays, subroutines or objects. With the array, you use indices to access its elements. The Template Toolkit will automatically apply the correct procedure to accessing these values as they are used in the template. Technically speaking there are no multi-dimensional arrays in Perl, but you can use arrays in Perl to act as if they had more than one dimension. I created this website to help developers by providing them with free online tools. Perl 4 used comma-separated hash keys to emulate multidimensional arrays (which are now better handled with array references). Working with an array of hashes. I have a bunch of hashes in powershell with identical keys. It is somewhat analogous to the Java notion of a ByteArray. Convert output of tree command to json format. not nested. json file is the perfect structure for my project. One can use any kind of Perl variable as an object in Perl. The keys are unique. This module will handle very complex data structures, and will even nicely handle recursive references (an element in the hash points to a hash, in which an element points back to the first hash). 0", "name": "JSON. JSON Formatter & Editor Online is a free awesome web-based tool to view, edit JSON document. As JsonSlurper is returning pure Groovy object instances without any special JSON classes in the back, its usage is transparent. OpenAPI lets you define dictionaries where the keys are strings. It supports JSON serialization, JSON deserialization, MessagePack, streams, and fixed memory allocation. , in array columns. No type conversion of the operand is performed. Unlike normal arrays where you refer to each element via a numeric index, the keys of a hash table can be strings. Data::Dumper handles hashes, arrays, and combinations of both. js, R, PHP, Strest, Go, Dart, JSON, Rust. JSON Schema is hypermedia ready, and ideal for annotating your existing JSON-based HTTP API. Any scalar may hold a hard reference. JSON arrays are read into standard Perl arrays. It returns a JSON-encoded string on success or FALSE on failure. Before we start, let's define some simple JSON to parse. The string part of each object member becomes the key of the Perl hash. Converts the given Perl data structure (a simple scalar or a reference to a hash or array) to its JSON representation. Module Docs. perldoc IO::File from your command prompt. The answer is really quite simple and very elegant. URL Encoder / Decoder. The following example defines a sample perl array of arrays. However, if we want to store data and use keys other than integer, such as 'string', we may want to use dictionary. Help is available from other Windows Perl developers on the #win32 irc channel on irc. Hash vs Array :- (i) The basic differnce is the order maintain by both, array always keeps the order of elements inserted but hash will not do the same. JSON bygger på to strukturer: En samling af navn/værdi par. #to_array(raw : Bool, value_type : T. JSON(JavaScript Object Notation, JS 对象简谱) 是一种轻量级的数据交换格式。它基于 ECMAScript (欧洲计算机协会制定的js规范)的一个子集,采用完全独立于编程语言的文本格式来存储和表示数据。. A javascript object, python dictionary, perl hash or associative arrays are mostly the same concept though I’m stretching it a bit with the javascript object. Files-conversion provides you a free service to convert any format. Convert your image files between many different image file formats. It is far nicer than XML. Here's an example of an array of hashes (that is, an array of references to hashes). getContentText(). 2 and new projects should not use this element anymore. It bundles all these types into. but fast and small. This is called a slice. It is common, however, to use a reference to an array as a hash value since references are scalars, and this is what encode_json expects. The BSON "binary" or "BinData" datatype is used to represent arrays of bytes. It is easy for humans to read and write. (The perl language was released later, and had hash arrays, which are the same thing. Although it isn't intuitive for newcomers to programming, "hash" is now the preferred term. But in Perl, there is an alternative to provide empty values to Hashes. So if you’d look up the key "weights" you’d now get an Array back. YAML vs JSON. If the arrays are not equal, their order is determined by the elements in the first position where there is a difference. exists EXPR† Checks if the specified hash key exists in its hash. However, you must use descriptive keys to access hash’s element. Performance, local array. You can use a json_table NESTED path clause to project specific elements of an array. A light weight remote procedure call protocol. 5rc1 is available. So you're creating a hash with two elements when you mean to create a hash with one element. There is no need to specify a type for the data while using in the Perl program. It is an array whose indexes are obtained using a hash function on the keys. The JSON data is read into a standard Perl data structure, so no special processing is required to access the data. Now let's analyze the code. Security is a major plus point with JSON too. 1 === * The installer now includes a check for a data corruption issue with certain versions of libxml2 2. AWK was the first language I found that has associative arrays. This article originally appeared in issue #20 of The Perl Journal. Let's build up an example. nil has the same value as Java null. Converts the given Perl data structure (a simple scalar or a reference to a hash or array) to its JSON representation. So you're creating a hash with two elements when you mean to create a hash with one element. [Perl-beginners] convert an array to hash; Ramprasad A Padmanabhan. Sorting arrays in Perl; Sorting mixed strings; Unique values in an array in Perl; Manipulating Perl arrays: shift, unshift, push, pop; Reverse Polish Calculator in Perl using a stack; Using a queue in Perl; Reverse an array, a string or a number; The ternary operator in Perl; Loop controls: next, last, continue, break; min, max, sum in Perl using List::Util. Hashes Hashes in Perl Creating a hash from an array in Perl Perl hash in scalar and list context exists - check if a key exists in a hash How to sort a hash in Perl? Count the frequency of words in text using Perl Regular Expressions Introduction to Regexes in Perl 5 Regex character classes. South America Journey free app, the best app for South America travelers! Android: https://play. This article describes the main functions and syntax rules for for working with hashes in Perl. The CreateTable operation adds a new table to your account. The array comes in handy in some situations e. In order to get a better picture of the subtlety of Perl's quoting, see the following section in the perlop documentation:. It is similar to an array. I already declare my %hash. Since data structure supported by JSON is also supported by most of the modern programming languages, it makes JSON a very useful data-interchange. Adding to an array reference. What does this Hex to RGB converter do? It takes input in the form of a hex color code value and converts that value to a RGB value that can be used to specify color in photo editing software. Given a reference to hash or a reference to an array in Perl, how can we get back the original hash or array? What if we have a reference to a reference to a hash and we would like to get back the reference to the hash. The hash is substantially smaller than the text itself, and is generated by a formula in such a way that it is extremely unlikely that some other text will produce the same hash value. What is JSON used for? JSON is most commonly used in web applications to send data from the server to the browser. A Hash is a dictionary-like collection of unique keys and their values. After reading the following JSON data into Perl: [ "Amy Pond", "Rory Williams", "River Song" ] The data could be displayed with the following code:. Press button, get base64. Read more: json. JSON采用完全独立于语言的文本格式,但是也使用了类似于C语言家族的习惯(包括C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python等)。 这些特性使JSON成为理想的数据交换语言。. PHP also supports associative arrays. Preview Your Fonts Your headline is in Georgia This is a sub heading in Georgia. Arrays are slow at removing a single item, so again I will use hash tables. This means its programs take up more CPU time than a compiled language — a problem that becomes less important as the speed of processors increases. Unlike arrays, hashes can have arbitrary objects as indexes. Preview Your Fonts Your headline is in Helvetica This is a sub heading in Helvetica. JSON is a lightweight data format common in modern web APIs. Hi, I have an array in File1. In Perl each element of an array can be a reference to another array, but syntactically they would look like a two-dimensional array. This 10 th edition has been prepared under the Ecma RF patent policy. I know how to sort a simple array. Convert curl syntax to Python, Ansible URI, Node. It is worth noting that the env vars will always take precedence over the values specified in composer. The fields used for sorting will have to be first-level keys, i. so please help me here thanks in Advance Sridhar. Returns the value encoded in json in appropriate PHP type. Perl 5 hashes are flat: keys are strings and values are scalars. The next call to each after that will start iterating again. Undefined Perl values (e. The CreateTable operation adds a new table to your account. In Perl, people use term list and array interchangeably, however there is a difference. Note that the hash table is open: in the case of a "hash collision", a single bucket stores multiple entries, which must be searched sequentially. jq supports the same set of datatypes as JSON - numbers, strings, booleans, arrays, objects (which in JSON-speak are hashes with only string keys), and "null". This means that your server won't be able to process more request or your UI will become irresponsive while data is being processed. Summary: in this tutorial, you will learn how to pass array references to a subroutine. JSON采用完全独立于语言的文本格式,但是也使用了类似于C语言家族的习惯(包括C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python等)。 这些特性使JSON成为理想的数据交换语言。. If the key exists in the second array, and not the first, it will be created in the first array. You have to work systematically through the data, getting out particular hashes and arrays and so on in nested loops or whatever. JSON-LD JSON-LD is a lightweight Linked Data format. We have dealt with qw() here as if it was a function, (and indeed it is listed as such in the standard perlfunc documentation), but this is not the whole story. Finally, it's worth noting here that we can form arrays of other data structures just as easily using the same method. The Badger Book. The code snippets presented here illustrate how to set HTTP request header fields, as well as data enclosed in a request body. * (bug 20239) MediaWiki:Imagemaxsize does not contain anymore a. In this course, you will learn the basics of scripting with Perl. Here's how to give a key many values:. if you want to suppress this warning, specify -oldperl on the command line, or. (The perl language was released later, and had hash arrays, which are the same thing. If one argument is a JSON array and the other is a scalar, the scalar is treated as an array element. Also known as hashes, associative arrays provide native language support for one of the most useful data structures that programmers implement--the hash table. JSON è un formato di testo completamente indipendente dal linguaggio di programmazione, ma utilizza convenzioni conosciute dai programmatori di linguaggi della famiglia del C, come C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python, e molti altri. Undefined Perl values (e. Just like arrays, hashes can be created with hash literals. Like JSON, BSON sup­ports the em­bed­ding of doc­u­ments and ar­rays with­in oth­er doc­u­ments and ar­rays. Since a JSON structure is usually anonymous and doesn't necessarily have a "root member object" JSONPath assumes the abstract name $ assigned to the outer level object. After all values of the hash have been returned, a null array is returned. Version 2: This version uses a single char array, created before the loop. That's why STORABLE_freeze lets you provide a list of references to serialize.